Overall Average

What We've Learned

Every dollar of payment to artists and other program personnel relates to $2.24 of revenue for the average arts and cultural organization. This translates to 45% of all operating revenue going to payment of artists and other program personnel.

Our Formula: Expenses

Salaried And Non-Salaried Artists & Program Personnel Expenses

Ave. Total Operating Revenue

Salaried And Non-Salaried Artists & Program Personnel Expenses

Different arts and cultural sectors hire different types of people to create, perform, curate, preserve, produce and present their mission-related activity. In some sectors the norm is to hire more individuals on a per contract basis to work on individual program-related projects whereas in other sectors the norm is to hire more individuals on a full-time or part-time staff basis to carry out this work. That’s why we include those hired on a contract or non-salaried basis and those who are salaried.

Ave. Total Operating Revenue

We follow Nonprofit Finance Funds’ recommendation to eliminate capital gains and losses as well as unrestricted gifts to capital campaigns to focus solely on unrestricted operating revenues, which are most germane to the activity generated by program personnel.

View CDP Survey Lines Used

High Performance Indicators: Expenses

  • Driving Force Factors

  • Key Intangible Performance Indicators

  • Random

Identifying High Performance Indicators

One reason performance may be better is simply that the managing and/or artistic leadership make good decisions. This likely grows out of years of experience, learning, and developed expertise that forms an intangible yet essential ingredient. It is difficult to observe and measure but not impossible. We capture this as a Key Intangible Performance Indicator (KIPI). It allows us to determine that 43% of Program Personnel Expense performance and 56% of Operating Revenue performance can be attributed to good decision-making. 32% of the variation in Program Personnel Expenses and 7% of the variation in Operating Revenue is random and is not explained by the driving forces or KIPIs. Learn more»

View List of Markets

Individual Markets (CBSA Name):

  • New York-White Plains-Wayne, NY-NJ
  • Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale
  • Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights
  • San Francisco-Redwood City-So. S.F.
  • Washington-Arlington-Alexandria - Bethesda-Rockville-Fredericksburg

View List of Markets

Large Markets (CBSA Name):

  • Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA
  • Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX
  • Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX
  • Minneapolis-St Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI
  • Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ
  • Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA
  • San Diego-Carlsbad, CA
  • Santa Ana-Anaheim-Irvine, CA

View List of Markets

Medium Markets (CBSA Name):

  • Boston-Quincy, MA
  • Cambridge-Newton-Framingham, MA
  • Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI
  • Edison-New Brunswick, NJ
  • Nassau County-Suffolk County, NY
  • Newark, NJ
  • Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley, CA
  • Philadelphia, PA
  • Warren-Troy-Farmington Hill, MIv
  • Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD
  • Cincinnati, OH
  • Cleveland-Elyria, OH
  • Columbus, OH
  • Pittsburgh, PA
  • Sacramento--Roseville—Arden-Aracade, CA
  • San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA

View List of Markets

Small Markets (CBSA Name):

  • Lake County-Kenosha County, IL-WI
  • Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY
  • Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ
  • Bakersfield, CA
  • Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY
  • Dayton, OH
  • Fresno, CA
  • Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI
  • Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI
  • New Haven-Milford, CT
  • Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA
  • Peabody, MA
  • Providence-Warwick, RI-MA
  • Rochester, NY
  • Tucson, AZ
  • Worcester, MA

View List of Markets

Very Small Markets (CBSA Name):

  • Wilmington, DE
  • Akron, OH
  • Alpena, MI
  • Altoona, PA
  • Ann Arbor, MI
  • Ashland, OH
  • Athens, OH
  • Auburn, NY
  • Barnstable Town, MA
  • Barre, VT
  • Battle Creek, MI
  • Bay City, MI
  • Bellefontaine, OH
  • Bennington, VT
  • Big Rapids, MI
  • Binghamton, NY
  • Bishop, CA
  • Bloomington-Normal, IL
  • Bloomsburg-Berwick, PA
  • Bradford, PA
  • Burlington-South Burlington, VT
  • California rural
  • Cambridge, MD
  • Canton-Massillon, OH
  • Chambersburg-Waynesboro, PA
  • Champaign-Urbana, IL
  • Charleston-Mattoon, IL
  • Danville, IL
  • Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL
  • Decatur, IL
  • Duluth, MN-WI
  • East Stroudsburg, PA
  • Easton, MD
  • Effingham, IL
  • Erie, PA
  • Fergus Falls, MN
  • Findlay, OH
  • Flagstaff, AZ
  • Flint, MI
  • Galesburg, IL
  • Gettysburg, PA
  • Glens Falls, NY
  • Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV
  • Hanford-Corcoran, CA
  • Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA
  • Holland-Grand Haven, MI
  • Hudson, NY
  • Huntingdon, PA
  • Illinois rural
  • Indiana, PA
  • Ithaca, NY
  • Jackson, MI
  • Jacksonville, IL
  • Johnstown, PA
  • Kalamazoo-Portage, MI
  • Kankakee, IL
  • Kingston, NY
  • Lake Havasu City-Kingman, AZ
  • Lancaster, PA
  • Lansing-East Lansing, MI
  • Lebanon, VT
  • Lebanon, PA
  • Lewisburg, PA
  • Lewistown, PA
  • Lexington Park, MD
  • Lima
  • OH
  • Macomb, IL
  • Malone, NY
  • Mankato-North Mankato, MN
  • Mansfield, OH
  • Marion, OH
  • Marquette, MI
  • Maryland rural
  • Massachusetts rural
  • Meadville, PA
  • Merced, CA
  • Michigan rural
  • Minnesota rural
  • Modesto, CA
  • Mount Vernon, OH
  • New Castle, PA
  • New Philadelphia-Dover, OH
  • New York rural
  • Nogales, AZ
  • Norwich-New London, CT
  • Ocean Pines, MD
  • Ogdensburg-Massena, NY
  • Olean, NY
  • Oneonta, NY
  • Ottawa-Peru, IL
  • Pennsylvania rural
  • Peoria, IL
  • Phoenix Lake-Cedar Ridge, CA
  • Pittsfield, MA
  • Portland-South Portland, NH
  • Portsmouth OH
  • Pottsville, PA
  • Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY
  • Prescott, AZ
  • Quincy, IL-MO
  • Reading, PA
  • Red Bluff, CA
  • Rockford, IL
  • Safford, AZ
  • Saginaw, MI
  • Salinas, CA
  • Salisbury, MD
  • San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande, CA
  • Sandusky, OH
  • Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Goleta, CA
  • Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA
  • Santa Rosa, CA
  • Sault Ste. Marie, MI
  • Sayre, PA
  • Scranton--Wilkes-Barre—Hazleton, PA
  • Selinsgrove, PA
  • Show Low, AZ
  • Sidney, OH
  • Sierra Vista-Douglas, AZ
  • Somerset, PA
  • Springfield, IL
  • Springfield, MA
  • Springfield, OH
  • St Cloud, MN
  • State College, PA
  • Stockton-Lodi, CA
  • Syracuse, NY
  • Toledo, OH
  • Traverse City, MI
  • Trenton, NJ
  • Truckee-Grass Valley, CA
  • Ukiah, CA
  • Utica-Rome, NY
  • Vallejo-Fairfield, CA
  • Van Wert, OH
  • Vermont rural
  • Visalia-Porterville, CA
  • Williamsport, PA
  • Wooster, OH
  • York-Hanover, PA
  • Youngstown-Warren-Boardman
  • PA
  • Yuma, AZ
  • Zanesville, OH

Expenses

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What is the relationship between investment in paying program-related personnel and total operating revenue?

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What We've Learned

Every dollar of payment to artists and other program personnel relates to $2.24 of revenue for the average arts and cultural organization. This translates to 45% of all operating revenue going to payment of artists and other program personnel.